Abdorrahman Boroumand Center

for Human Rights in Iran

Omid, a memorial in defense of human rights in Iran
One Person’s Story

Mahmud Mahmudi


Age: 41
Nationality: Iran
Religion: Non-Believer
Civil Status: Married


Date of Killing: March 9, 1987
Location of Killing: Evin Prison, Tehran, Tehran Province, Iran
Mode of Killing: Shooting
Charges: Unspecified offense; War on God, God's Prophet and the deputy of the Twelfth Imam; Printing/distributing leaflets; Plotting to overthrow the Islamic Republic; Counter revolutionary opinion and/or speech; Actively opposing the Islamic Republic

About this Case

The information about Mr. Mahmud Mahmudi was taken from the book Prison Dialogues, a Monograph for Mahmud Mahmudi (2003)". He was born in Lahijan and had two children. He graduated from Tehran University majoring in Accounting. He was a member of the Fadaiyan Khalq Organization (Minority). During the previous regime, he was arrested along with the Jangal Group (Siahkal) and was first condemned to death. But later, his sentence was commuted to ten years imprisonment.

He was released in November, 1978. A year later, he was expelled from the Fadaiyan Organization due to his opposition of the Organization’s closeness with the leadership of the Islamic Republic. After a division in the Organization, he joined a minority group called the minority.

The Fadayian Khalq Organization, a Marxist Leninist group inspired by the Cuban Revolution and the urban guerilla movements of Latin America, was founded in 1971 by two communist groups opposed to the Pahlavi regime. Following the 1979 revolution, the Organization, which had renounced armed struggle, split over their support of the Islamic Republic and of the Soviet Union. The Fadayian Khalq Minority opposed the Islamic Republic and was mainly active in the political arena and the labor movement.

In 1982, Mr. Mahmudi was exiled to Kurdistan for six months because of his opposition to the Central Committee. Sometime later, he was again expelled because of his opposition to the leadership of Fadaiyan Khalq Minority. During that period he began publishing a periodical called Kar-e Vijeh (special work). In 1984, the Fadaiyan Khalq Organization broke off with him. In April, 1985, he tried to leave the country by going to Bandar Abbas. But, he wasn't successful and had to return to Tehran.

Arrest and detention

The circumstances of this defendant’s arrest and detention are unknown. According to the book Prison Dialogues, there was no arrest warrant for Mr. Mahmud Mahmudi (known as Babak). He was driving near Shahreray on April 27, 1985, when he was arrested and was taken to Joint Commitee. According to Siavash Mahmudi, who was also arrested along with Mr. Mahmud Mahmudi, some men on motorcycles approached them, pointing their guns at them saying: "Are you smuggling?"

The same source mentions: "Mr. Mahmud Mahmudi's torture began during the first minutes after his arrest. In prison, they interrogated him day and night. It was rare for him to be left alone for even a few hours. His legs were blackened from constant torture. According to the same source, after his death sentence was issued, the judge said: “You can visit your wife for few minutes.” They took them in a room near the court room with opened door and a Guard standing two meters away. A few minutes later, they separated with the notion that it was their last visit, but it wasn’t. Several times, they took him out of his cell telling him he would be executed, but tortured him and kept him alive. During his 22 months detention, Mr. Mahmud Mahmudi was denied the right to have an attorney. He had only three visits with his wife and several telephone conversations with his family.


No information is available on the defendant’s trial. According to the book Prison Dialogues, Mr. Mahmud Mahmudi's trial was in Evin prison in 1986. In the first session, he asked for an open court and to have an attorney; but, his request was denied. His trial took several days. After the ruling was issued, his case was not sent to an appeal court.


According to the book Prison Dialogues, Mr. Mahmud Mahmudi was able to give his cellmates the text of the Public Prosecution Office charges against him. These charges are as follow:

"He refused to answer questions correctly and declared that he believes in a Marxism-Leninism ideology and the overthrow of the Islamic Republic. He confessed that he was the leader of a group named "Vizheh Kar" which is separate from the Mohareb organization of Aqaliat."

Some of the specific charges are listed as:

1. Intention to overthrow the Islamic Republic’s holy regime

2. Leadership of an organization named "Vizheh Kar," which is at war with God, separate from Fadaiyan Khalq Minority Organization, which is [also] at war with God

3. Membership of and participant in meetings of the central committee of the Fadaiyan Khalq Minority Organization

4. Leadership of the Northern Branch of the Fadaiyan Khalq Minority Organization, and an organizer of forces against the Islamic Republic

5. Leadership of the Esfahan and Shiraz branches

6. Leadership of the Employees Section of the Fadaiyan Khalq Minority Organization

7. Leadership of the Quarters’ Section of the Fadaiyan Khalq Minority Organization

8. Leadership of the anti-people Fadaiyan Khalq Organization in Abadan and Masjedsoleiman

9. Fighting in Kurdestan while living in the headquarters of the Fadaiyan Khalq Minority Organization

10. Being the editor of the Vizheh Kar publication

11. Liaison with the Rah-e Kargar organization, which is at war with God

12. Liaison with the Rah-e Kargar organization and Fadaiyan Khalq Minority Organization outside of the country

13. Active participation in secret meetings of central cells of the Fadaiyan Khalq Minority Organization using his house for these meetings

14. Intention to leave the country illegally, with the help of smugglers and members of the Rah-e Kargar and later unsuccessful attempt to leave through the southern water borders

15. Intention to find places (a farm and a fruit shop) to house the Kare Vizheh Organizational forces, and supplying the financial support for the group

16. Participation in organizational secret meetings

17. Hiding the documents and archives of the organization

18. Supporting the family of a murdered member of the organization

19. Writing about the materialistic culture of Marxism in publications, articles, and anti-revolutionary leftist brochures and attracting Marxist forces to the organization

20. Refusal to correctly answer questions during the interrogation, telling lies in order to protect the organization, and believing in the treacherous Marxist positions of Vizheh Kar

The validity of the criminal charges brought against this defendant cannot be ascertained in the absence of the basic guarantees of a fair trial.

Evidence of guilt

The report of this execution contains no evidence provided against the defendant.


The book Prison Dialogues quotes the wife of Mr. Mahmud Mahmudi, who was present in the court, saying: He defended Marxism and his revolutionary positions and said: "You are the thief of the revolution. The people gave their blood and you got the power."


No specific information is available about the defendant’s execution. At the end of the trial, the Public Prosecutor called him a "corruptor on earth" and "at war with God" and asked for the maximum penalty. In response to his defence, the Judge told him that "you will not become a human being and never will be directed to the right path." According to the book Prison Dialogues, Mr. Mahmud Mahmudi was condemned to death and was executed by a firing squad in Evin prison on March 9, 1987.

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