Abdorrahman Boroumand Center

for Human Rights in Iran

Omid, a memorial in defense of human rights in Iran
One Person’s Story

Farajollah Mizani


Age: 62
Nationality: Iran
Religion: Non-Believer
Civil Status: Married


Date of Killing: September, 1988
Location of Killing: Iran
Mode of Killing: Hanging
Charges: Counter revolutionary opinion and/or speech; Apostasy

About this Case

Mr. Farajollah Mizani is one of 1,000 people identified in a UN Human Rights Commission’s Special Representative’s Report, “Names and Particulars of Persons Allegedly Executed by the Islamic Republic of Iran from July through December 1988,” published January 26, 1989. The report specifies that although 1000 names are mentioned, “in all probability” there were several thousand victims. “Most of the alleged victims were members of the Mojahedin Khalq Organizatioin (MKO). However, members of the Tudeh Party, People’s Fedaiyan Organization, Rahe Kargar, and Komala Organization as well as 11 mollahs were also said to be among the alleged victims.”

The information about Mr. Farajollah Mizani (Javanshir) is taken from the book The Martyrs of the Tudeh Party of Iran by The Tudeh Party Publications and the book Memories by Mohammad Rayshahri (the Chief Judge of the time) published by the Center for Islamic Revolution Documents. Mr. Mizani was born in Tabriz in 1926. He had degree in engineering from Tehran University, as well as a degree in History. According to the above book, he joined the Tudeh Party in 1945. In 1957, he moved out of the country and did not return until the 1979 Revolution. First, he was an advisor to the Central Committee and then, he became a member of the Political Committee. He wrote several books of both fiction and nonfiction, and he translated several Russian novels into Farsi.

The Tudeh Party of Iran was created in 1941. The Party’s ideology was Marxist-Leninist and it supported policies of the former Soviet Union. The Party played a major role in Iran’s political scene until it was banned for the second time following the August 19, 1953 coup. After the 1979 Revolution, the Tudeh declared Ayatollah Khomeini and the Islamic Republic regime revolutionaries and anti-imperialists and actively supported the new government. Although the Party never opposed the Islamic Republic, it became the target of government attacks in 1982 when most of the Party leaders and members were imprisoned.

Arrest and detention

The circumstances of this defendant’s arrest and detention are not known. According to the Tudeh book, Mr. Farajollah Mizani was arrested by the Revolutionary Guards on April 27, 1983.


Mr. Farajollah Mizani was tried and condemned to life imprisonment. Specific details on the circumstances of the trials that led to the execution of Mr. Mizani and thousands of other individuals in 1988 are not known. According to existing information, there was no official trial with the presence of an attorney and prosecutor. Those who were executed in 1988 were sent to a three-man committee consisting of a religious judge, a representative from the Intelligence Ministry, and a Public Prosecutor of Tehran. This committee asked the leftist prisoners some questions about their beliefs and whether or not they believed in God.

The relatives of political prisoners executed in 1988 refute the legality of the judicial process that resulted in thousands of executions throughout Iran. In their 1988 open letter to then Minister of Justice Dr. Habibi, they argue that the official secrecy surrounding these executions is proof of their illegality. They note that an overwhelming majority of these prisoners had been tried and sentenced to prison terms, which they were either serving or had already completed serving when they were retried and sentenced to death.


Among the charges against Mr. Farajollah Mizani, mentioned in the book Memoirs, was his “connection with agents in the Embassy of the Soviet Union.” No charge was ever publicly leveled against the victims of the 1988 mass executions. In their letters to the Minister of Justice (1988), and to the UN Special Rapporteur visiting Iran (February 2003), the families of the victims refer to the authorities’ accusations that may have led to their execution. These accusations include being “counter-revolutionary, anti-religion, and anti-Islam,” as well as being “associated with military action or with various [opposition] groups based near the borders.”

An edict from the Leader of the Islamic Republic, reproduced in the memoirs of his designated successor Ayatollah Montazeri, corroborates the reported claims regarding the charges against the executed prisoners. In this edict, Ayatollah Khomeini refers to the MKO members as “hypocrites” who do not believe in Islam and who “wage war against God” and decrees that prisoners who still approve of the positions taken by this organization are also “waging war against God” and should be sentenced to death.

Defendants, who did not belong to the Organization named by the leader of the Islamic Republic, may have been accused of being “anti-religion” for not having renounced his or her beliefs.

Evidence of guilt

The report of this execution contains no evidence provided against the defendant other than the testimony of two witnesses (Partovi, in charge of the underground organization, and Kianuri, the party leader), mentioned in Memoirs.


In their open letter, the families of the prisoners note that defendants were not given the opportunity to defend themselves in court. Against the assertion that prisoners were associated with guerrilla forces operating near the borders, the families submit the isolation of their relatives from the outside during their detention: “Our children lived under most difficult conditions. All visits were limited to 10 minutes behind a glass divider through a telephone every two weeks. We witnessed, over the past seven years, that they were denied access to anything that would have allowed them to establish contacts outside their prison walls.” Under such conditions the families reject the claim of the authorities that these prisoners were able to engage with the political groups outside Iran.


No specific information is available about the execution sentence. Mr. Farajollah Mizani was hanged during the mass killings of political prisoners in September 1988.

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